Journey to the center of the linear ordering problem
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A number of local search based algorithms have been designed to escape from the local optima, such as, iterated local search or variable neighborhood search. The neighborhood chosen for the local search as well as the escape technique play a key role in the performance of these algorithms. Of course, a specific strategy has a different effect on distinct problems or instances. In this paper, we focus on a permutation-based combinatorial optimization problem: the linear ordering problem. We provide a theoretical landscape analysis for the adjacent swap, the swap and the insert neighborhoods. By making connections to other different problems found in the Combinatorics field, we prove that there are some moves in the local optima that will necessarily return a worse or equal solution. The number of these non-better solutions that could be avoided by the escape techniques is considerably large with respect to the number of neighbors. This is a valuable information that can be included in any of those algorithms designed to escape from the local optima, increasing their efficiency.