On quadrature rules for solving Partial Differential Equations using Neural Networks
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Neural Networks have been widely used to solve Partial Differential Equations. These methods require to approximate definite integrals using quadrature rules. Here, we illustrate via 1D numerical examples the quadrature problems that may arise in these applications and propose several alternatives to overcome them, namely: Monte Carlo methods, adaptive integration, polynomial approximations of the Neural Network output, and the inclusion of regularization terms in the loss. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of each proposed numerical integration scheme. We advocate the use of Monte Carlo methods for high dimensions (above 3 or 4), and adaptive integration or polynomial approximations for low dimensions (3 or below). The use of regularization terms is a mathematically elegant alternative that is valid for any spatial dimension; however, it requires certain regularity assumptions on the solution and complex mathematical analysis when dealing with sophisticated Neural Networks.