Entire vortex solutions of negative degree for the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau system
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The anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau system $\Delta u+\delta \nabla (div u) +\delta curl^*(curl u)=(|u|^2-1) u$, for $u\colon\mathbb R^2\to\mathbb R^2$ and $\delta\in (-1,1)$, models the formation of vortices in liquid crystals. We prove the existence of entire solutions such that $|u(x)|\to 1$ and $u$ has a prescribed topological degree $d\leq -1$ as $|x|\to\infty$, for small values of the anisotropy parameter $|\delta| < \delta_0(d)$. Unlike the isotropic case $\delta=0$, this cannot be reduced to a one-dimensional radial equation. We obtain these solutions by minimizing the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau energy in an appropriate class of equivariant maps, with respect to a finite symmetry subgroup.