1D Painless Multi-level Automatic Goal-Oriented h and p Adaptive Strategies Using a Pseudo-Dual Operator
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The main idea of our Goal-Oriented Adaptive (GOA) strategy is based on performing global and uniform h- or p-refinements (for h- and p-adaptivity, respectively) followed by a coarsening step, where some basis functions are removed according to their estimated importance. Many Goal-Oriented Adaptive strategies represent the error in a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in terms of the bilinear form and the solution of the direct and adjoint problems. However, this is unfeasible when solving indefinite or non-symmetric problems since symmetric and positive definite forms are needed to define the inner product that guides the refinements. In this work, we provide a Goal-Oriented Adaptive (h- or p-) strategy whose error in the QoI is represented in another bilinear symmetric positive definite form than the one given by the adjoint problem. For that purpose, our Finite Element implementation employs a multi-level hierarchical data structure that imposes Dirichlet homogeneous nodes to avoid the so-called hanging nodes. We illustrate the convergence of the proposed approach for 1D Helmholtz and convection-dominated problems.