Limited Visual Range in the Social Force Model: Effects on Macroscopic and Microscopic Dynamics
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The Social Force Model has been widely used to simulate pedestrian dynamics. Its simplicity and ability to reproduce some collective patterns of behavior make it an adequate tool in the field of pedestrian dynamics. However, its ability to reproduce common macroscopic empirical results, such as pedestrian flows through a bottleneck and the speed-density fundamental diagram, has scarcely been studied. In addition, the effect of each parameter of the model on the dynamics of the system has rarely been shown. In this contribution, a comprehensive parameter-sensitivity analysis in the social force model is provided, and an optimal set is introduced, capable of reproducing both macroscopic experimental flow data and collision avoidance between pedestrians in simple trajectories on the microscopic scale. We show that the incorporation of asymmetric visual range models in the inter-pedestrian interactions is required for quantitative agreement. The model is also capable of showing collision avoidance in simple pedestrian trajectories and lane formation in non-crowded bidirectional pedestrian flows.