Changes in Social and Clinical Determinants of COVID-19 Outcomes Achieved by the Vaccination Program: A Nationwide Cohort Study
MetadataShow full item record
Background: The objective of this study was to assess changes in social and clinical determinants of COVID-19 outcomes associated with the first year of COVID-19 vaccination rollout in the Basque population. Methods: A retrospective study was performed using the complete database of the Basque Health Service (n = 2,343,858). We analyzed data on age, sex, socioeconomic status, the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and COVID-19 infection by Cox regression models and Kaplan–Meier curves. Results: Women had a higher hazard ratio (HR) of infection (1.1) and a much lower rate of hospitalization (0.7). With older age, the risk of infection fell, but the risks of hospitalization and ICU admission increased. The higher the CCI, the higher the risks of infection and hospitalization. The risk of infection was higher in high-income individuals in all periods (HR = 1.2–1.4) while their risk of hospitalization was lower in the post-vaccination period (HR = 0.451). Conclusion: Despite the lifting of many control measures during the second half of 2021, restoring human mobility patterns, the situation could not be defined as syndemic, clinical determinants seeming to have more influence than social ones on COVID-19 outcomes, both before and after vaccination program implementation.