Spin-orbit interaction in three-dimensionally bounded semiconductor nanostructures
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The structural inversion asymmetry-induced spin-orbit interaction of conduction band electrons in zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductor structures is analysed allowing for a three-dimensional (3D) character of the external electric field and variation of the chemical composition. The interaction, taking into account all remote bands perturbatively, is presented with two contributions: a heterointerface term and a term caused by the external electric field. They have generally comparable strength and can be written in a unified manner only for 2D systems, where they can partially cancel each other. For quantum wires and dots composed of wurtzite semiconductors, new terms appear, absent in zinc-blende structures, which acquire the standard Rashba form in 2D systems.