Cancer incidence among children and young adults who have undergone x-ray guided cardiac catheterization procedures
Children and young adults with heart disease appear to be at increased risk of developing cancer, although the reasons for this are unclear. A cohort of 11,270 individuals, who underwent cardiac catheterizations while aged B 22 years in the UK, was established from hospital records. Radiation doses from cardiac catheterizations and CT scans were estimated. The cohort was matched with the NHS Central Register and NHS Transplant Registry to determine cancer incidence and transplantation status. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with associated confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The excess relative risk (ERR) of lymphohaematopoietic neoplasia was also calculated using Poisson regression. The SIR was raised for all malignancies (2.32, 95% CI 1.65, 3.17), lymphoma (8.34, 95% CI 5.22, 12.61) and leukaemia (2.11, 95% CI 0.82, 4.42). After censoring transplant recipients, post-transplant, the SIR was reduced to 0.90 (95% CI 0.49, 1.49) for all malignancies. All lymphomas developed post-transplant. The SIR for all malignancies developing 5 years from the first cardiac catheterization (2 years for leukaemia/lymphoma) remained raised (3.01, 95% CI 2.09, 4.19) but was again reduced after censoring transplant recipients (0.98, 95% CI 0.48, 1.77). The ERR per mGy bone marrow dose for lympho-haematopoietic neoplasia was reduced from 0.541 (95% CI 0.104, 1.807) to 0.018 (95% CI - 0.002, 0.096) where transplantation status was accounted for as a time-dependent background risk factor. In conclusion, transplantation appears to be a large contributor to elevated cancer rates in this patient group. This is likely to be mainly due to associated immunosuppression, however, radiation exposure may also be a contributing factor.